Reporting Questions and Imperatives (Soru ve Emir Cümlelerini Dolaylı Aktarma)


Soru cümlelerini aktarırken tense, yer ve zaman zarflarına ilişkin değişiklikler için izlenecek kurallar, düz cümleleri aktarırken uyduğumuz kurallarla aynıdır. Ancak, soru cümlelerini aktarırken "say" ve "teli" yerine, ask, inquire, wonder, want to learn, want to know gibi fuller kullanılır. Bu fiillerden ask, nesne alabilir. Diğerleri almaz.

"Why didn't you come to the parry?"
She asked (me) why I hadn't come to the party.
She inquired/wondered/wanted to know why I hadn't come to the party.

Soru sözcüğüyle başlayan sorulan aktarırken, aktarma sözünden sonra soru sözcüğü gelir, ancak soru cümlesi düz cümle biçimine dönüştürülerek ifade edilir.

"Why are you leaving so early today?"
My mother asked me why I was leaving so early that day.

"What time is it?"
A child in the street asked me what time it was.

Yardımcı fiille başlayan soruları aktarırken, aktarma sözünden sonra if ya da whether kullanılır ve soru cümlesi düz cümle biçimine dönüştürülür.

"Are you coming with us?"
She asked me if/whether I was coming (going) with them.

"Can you speak English?"
A tourist stopped me in the street and asked if/whether I could speak English.

Eğer temel cümlenin fiili, Simple Present, Present Perfect ya da Future Tense ise soru cümlesinin tense'i aynı kalır. Sadece gerekli zamir değişiklikleri yapılır.

"Are you coming with us?"
She is asking me if/whether I'm coming (going) with them.

"Why did you refuse my offer?"
He has asked me twice so far why I refused his offer.

He asked me if I was sure there was a bus at 10 o'clock
She asked him if he had remembered to bring that book she wanted to borrow.
We asked the tourists which hotel he was staying in
I asked her when she thought they would arrive.


Emir cümlelerini aktarırken, tell, order, command, ask gibi fiiller, emrin kime verildiğini gösteren bir zamir ile birlikte kullanılırlar. He told me, I asked him (rica etmek, istemek anlamında), They ordered me, etc. "Say" fiili, bu şekilde emir cümlesi aktarırken kullanılmaz.

Olumlu emir cümleleri to + verb infinitive, olumsuz emir cümleleri : not to + verb infinitive biçiminde aktarılır.

Direct: "Study your lessons regularly," the teacher said to us.
Indirect: The teacher told us to study our lessons regularly.

Direct: "Don't try to cheat during the exam," she said to us.
Indirect: She told us not to try to cheat during the exam.

Eğer bir cümle emir cümlesi biçiminde başlayıp devamında bir cümlecik (clause) alıyorsa, o cümleciğin tense'ini bir derece past yapmamız gerekir. Ancak, temel cümlenin tense'i present ya da future ise bu tense değişikliği yapılmaz.

"Study regularly if you want to pass the exam."
The teacher told us to study regularly if "we wanted to pass the exam.

"Don't release your seatbelts until after the plane has fully landed."
The air-hostess told the passengers not to release their seatbelts until after the plane had fully landed.

The teacher always tells us to study regularly if we want to pass exams.
An air-hostess usually tells the passengers not to release their seatbelts until after the plane has fully landed.

Emir cümlesi biçiminde kurulan cümleler bazen uyan, öğüt, teşvik etme, öneri vb. gibi anlamlar ifade edebilirler. Bu durumda bu cümleleri, cümlenin ifade ettiği anlama göre advise, encourage, warn, beg, implore, forbid, recommend, remind, request, urge, etc. gibi fiillerle de aktarabiliriz.

"Don't play with matches."
I warned my son not to play with matches.

"Speak slowly and clearly if you don't want to be misunderstood."
She advised me to speak slowly and clearly if I didn't want to be misunderstood.

"Make sure the oven has reached the right temperature before putting the cake in." It says in the cookery book.
"Don't make too much noise while the baby's sleeping." She reminded them.
"Don't worry if you can't answer all of the questions.",The teacher told the students.
"Wear sunglasses if the sun is really strong." He advised me
"Don't give up after the first attempt." She encouraged them.


Aktaracağımız ifadeler bazen arka arkaya iki cümle, iki soru, iki emir cümlesi ya da bir soru + bir düz cümle, bir soru + bir emir cümlesi vb. gibi karışık olarak bir arada bulunabilir. Bu durumda, her bir ifadeyi kendine özgü fiillerle aktarabiliriz. Yani düz cümleler için teli, say, remark, explain,etc., soru cümleleri için ask, want to know, inquire, wonder, etc.; emir cümleleri için ise ask, tell, order, etc. gibi fiiller kullanabiliriz.

Statement + Statement

"My son hasn't returned from school yet. I have to wait at home until he comes."
She said/told me that her son hadn't returned from school yet and that she had to wait at home until he came.

Aktarılan cümlelerin her ikisi de düz cümle olduğu için bir tane aktarma sözü yeterlidir. İki cümle arasında "and that" kullanılır. Eğer iki cümle arasında but, so, because, as, or gibi başka bir bağlaç varsa, o zaman and yerine cümlenin kendi bağlacı kullanılır.

"I have to study hard or I will fail the test."
She said that she had to study hard or she would fail the test.

"I liked the book but I didn't like the film much."
She said that she had liked the book but she hadn't liked the film much.

Question + Question

"Why are you still at home? Does your lesson start later today?"
My mother asked me why I was still at home and if/whether my lesson started later that day.

Question + Imperative/Imperative + Question

"Why are you still waiting? Start your work without delay."
The boss asked the employees why they were still waiting and told them to start their work without delay.

"Do it as I told you. Do you have any more questions?"
The manager told the secretary to do it as he had told her and asked if she had any more questions.

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