Modals: Obligation and Necessity in the Past - (Geçmişte Zorunluluk ve gereklilik)

Modals: Obligation and Necessity in the Past

Had to

"had to", ".......yapmak zorundaydım (ve yaptım)" anlamına gelir ve geçmişteki zorunluluğu ifade eder.

· The gambler had to sell all his proprty to pay his depts.
· When smallpox outbreaks were quite common, you had to have a smallpox vaccination certificate.
· Last night we had to be at home at 10 o'clock because of the babysitter, so we left the party early.
· Did you have to tell everything when they forced you?

Were / Was supposed to

“was/were supposed to” yapısı geçmişte olması yada yapılması beklenilen durumlar karşısında yapılması gerektiğini ifade etmek için kullanılır ".............. Yapmalıydın, yapman bekleniyordu" anlamı ile “should have V3” e benzemektedir.

· We were supposed to get a lot of money from the lottary, but the tax was much more than we received.
· You were supposed to come on Friday. Why didn't you come?

Bazen geçmişte olması gereken ve gerçekleşmemiş gerekliliği de vurgular.

· Martin and his wife were supposed to join to us for dinner. What's happened?
· Our plane was supposed to land Madrid hours ago, but we haven’t even taken off from the airport yet.

Was / Were to + V1

Bu yapı, geçmişte planlanmış, fakat gerçekleşip gerçekleşmediği belli olmayan eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.

· The whole family were to go Spain last summer.
· She was to go for an interview yesterday, but she was in bed with a bad flu.
· He felt nervous because he was soon to leave home for the first time.

“Was / were to”, “had to” gibi geçmişteki zorunluluğu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Ancak, “had to” da zorunluluk şartlardan dolayı ortaya çıkabilmesine karşın, “was / were to” da zorunluluk bir otoriteden kaynaklanır.

· The government had to lower the salary of the officials to prevent the discussion with IMF.
· The bank would advance funds and the firm was to spend the money on new equipment.
· The firm had to spend the money on new equipment in order to compete with other firms.
· Sally was to have moved her new house yesterday. I must ring her up to enquire.
· Tom’s wife was to have had a baby yesterday. Let me call him to ask.

Was / Were to  have + V3 

Eğer geçmişte verilmiş bir emir, zorunluluk, kişisel bir program herhangi bir nedenle yerine getirilmemiş veya gerçekleşmemişse “was/ were to” dan sonra “perfect infinitive” kullanılır. Bu özelliği ile “was / were going to” ya benzer.

· The farmer was to have irrigated the field, but it poured down just he was about to start.
· I was to have left home at nine, but I overslept and was late for work.
· The builders were to have started on the foundation last week, but the whether prevented them.

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