Gerunds & Infinitives: YDS Test - 4

Choose the appropriate word or word phrase to complete the sentences.
1. The origins of the site of present-day Cairo can be traced back to the Egyptian capital of Memphis, which is believed ……. in the early 4th millennium BC near the head of the Nile delta.
 A) having been founded
 B) to be founding
 C) to found
 D) founding
 E) to have been founded
2. The lecturer claims that there is no point in …….. a criminal in the prison and leave him there without ……. him moral values.
 A) to put / to teach
 B) having put / teach
 C) putting / teaching
 D) put / being taught
 E) to be put / having taught
3. The skin, the tissue that was the first ……., is rarely used in clinical transplantation.
 A) being transplanted
 B) transplanting
 C) to have transplanted
 D) to be transplanted
 E) having been transplanted
4. After Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman emperor in 800, he asked the English scholar Alcuin of York ……. handwriting and to have it …….. to all government officials .
 A) to reform / taught
 B) having reformed / to teach
 C) reforming / teaching
 D) reformed / taught
 E) reform / teach
5. I found that about a year previous to my …….. to Washington some of the natives had applied to the state Legislature for a small appropriation …….. in starting a native school in Washington.
 A) having gone/ using
 B) going / to be used
 C) to go / to have used
 D) to be going / being used
 E) being gone / having used
6. …….., you'd better bring down the prices of the products to sell more.
 A) Although you carried out careful market research
 B) Unless you sell them at a good price
 C) If the cost of manufacturing will be high
 D) In case of bankruptcy, with the lowest prices
 E) Instead of adding the interest rate to the prices
7. He insisted on my checking again to see that the train left at 5.30 ……. .
 A) when he decided to visit his parents
 B) which had made me furious when I saw him making a mistake again
 C) since he knew that there had never been any delay
 D) despite my having already assured him that it did
 E) but he usually met with a refuse
8. ……...… he turned down the job he was offered.
 A) Being reluctant to commit himself to a long contract
 B) Having decided that they had little chance of winning competition
 C) When he received his week's wage less than before
 D) Depressed by the news she had received from her firm
 E) Impressed by the young man's qualification
9. I don't know how my brother managed to get up early on Monday morning ……….. .
 A) if he didn't stay out until well after midnight
 B) after spending most of the previous night out with his friends
 C) owing to his healthy life style and good eating habits
 D) as he is already in the habit of going to bed late even on weekdays
 E) when he spends such hectic weekends In discos or bars
10. ............, we regularly have to meet once a week.
 A) The allocation for our budget is sufficient enough
 B) By the admiration for his new boss
 C) Growing concern about the association regulations
 D) About the insistence on expenditure for ads
 E) In accordance with the animation
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