Cümle Tamamlama - Bağlaç Konusu Yaklaşımlar

Cümle tamamlama sorularında en çok soruyu ilgilendiren bağlaç konusudur. Dolayısıyla verilen soru kökü iyi analiz edilmeli ve istenen anlam zıtlık mı, sebep-sonuç mu ya da diğer bağlaç yapıları mı buna karar verilmelidir.


Bu tür soruları çözerken, artı-eksi kuralını bilmemiz gerekir. Ana cümle ile yan cümle arasında daima olumlu- olumsuz cümle ilişkisi vardır. Aşağıda verilen ifadelerde zıtlık / karşılaştırma bağlaçlarına öncelik verilebilir: Örnegin; ana cümlede 'some' verilmiş ise, yan cümlede 'others' aramammız uygun olabilir.
  • still / also 
  • some / others / many / few 
  • now / today / in the past / modern / old 
  • comparative yapılar 
  • sayısal ifadeler / istatiksel bilgiler 
  • originally / primarily / initially / normally 

1. Whereas the aeroplanes of the future were expected to cross oceans and continents as fast as possible in the 1980s ----.

A) we now focus on noise reduction, ligher and stronger materials, and lower fuel consumption
B) the race to develop new aircraft technologies is at least as intense now as it was 30 years ago
C) the first heavier-than-air machines to fly were kites, invented by the Chinese in about 1000 BC
D) the needs of aircraft travellers are very well-matched with the technological development of airlines
E) designers have improved the conditions of both the terminals and the neighbourhoods of airports all over the world

2. Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes; some are spirals like our own galaxy ----.

A) as our sun belongs to a giant galaxy called the ‘Milky Way’
B) but others are fuzzy balls or shapeless clouds
C) though our galaxy is unimaginably vast
D) if the smallest galaxies have just a few million stars
E) so the stars in a galaxy are held together by gravity

3. Scientists are still not certain why people need sleep, ----.

A) as it can be extremely difficult for most people to do their daily activities without sufficient sleep
B) yet it influences almost every aspect of our lives, from our mood to the functions of our organs
C) though lots of people experience insomnia and they do not know its causes
D) so neuroscientists and biologists are investigating the ways to improve the quality of sleep
E) whereas people who travel long distances generally suffer from lack of sleep

4. ----, many of the main tourist attractions in London are fairly close to one another.

A) Although the city is much more spread out than other European capitals
B) Now that hotel prices tend to stay high all year round
C) As the city is facing an increasing migration problem
D) Given that the routes for many places will take you to the past
E) Despite the fact that it is an excellent city for walkers with its parks

5. ----, Indian culture was primarily oral, with a high value placed on recounting tales and dreams.

A) No matter how extraordinarily diverse Indian customs and culture have been
B) As native American Indians evolved into complex hierarchical societies that practiced human sacrifice
C) Even though the first Indians began constructing earthen burial sites and fortifications around 600 BC
D) If all European emigrants had left their homelands to escape political oppression
E) Although some North American tribes developed a type of hieroglyphics to preserve certain texts

6. ----, while larger sailing cruisers are used for long-distance racing.

A) Smaller sail boats are used for weekend and holiday cruising
B) Many different types of smaller sailing dinghies have gone on the market
C) Fibreglass has helped extend the use of smaller boats to more people
D) The yacht Maiden was used to compete in a long race with the first female crew
E) The kayak is the most popular type of canoe in Europe

7. ----, modern grand pianos have metal frames with heavier strings and can be played much more loudly.

A) Since the only instrument symbolizing the Romantic period is the piano
B) Whereas some pianos have a third central pedal like that of a tambourine
C) Though many orchestral works are arranged for the piano
D) While early pianos are largely made of wood and have a delicate sound
E) As the glockenspiel piano requires years of training to master

8. Although plays were being written as early as 300 BC, ----.

A) the Greek audience’s view of the stage was framed by the landscape and sky
B) Roman theatres included large amphitheatres for the audience which could be built into hills
C) the action of the play took place on a raised stage or pulpitum
D) the first permanent theatres where they could be staged properly were not built until much later
E) the function and proportion of theatrical elements changed significantly

9. A 10% increase in the cost of hospital services would cause poorer households to cut back their hospital care by 4.7%, ----.

A) in spite of the fact that many developing nations subsidize medical care by about 5%
B) thus the difference between poor and wealthy households is even larger
C) whereas the wealthy would have to do the same by only 2.9%
D) because the higher price of medical care would not affect the wealthy at all
E) but the same pattern occurs in the demand for medical services in poorer households

10. Normally, the volume of sweat is about 100 ml/day, ----.

A) but in very hot weather or during heavy exercise, water loss in sweat occasionally increases to 1-2 litres/hour
B) since urine volume can be as low as 0.5 litre/day in a dehydrated person
C) because normally a small amount of water (100 ml/day) is lost in the faeces
D) whereby water loss in the faeces can increase to several litres a day in people with severe diarrhea
E) so long as the maintenance of a relatively constant volume of the body fluids is essential for homeostasis


Bu soruları çözerken dikkat etmemiz gereken: ana cümle ile yan cümle arasında olumlu-olumlu, olumsuz-olumsuz bağ kurmak. Yani cümleler arasında konu bütünlüğü olması gerektiğini unutmayalım. Bağlaçla başlayan bir soru kökünde olumlu bir yapının devamı olarak yine olumlu, olumsuz bir yapının devamı olarak da olumsuz bir yapı aranabilir.

11. ---- since scholars and researchers have an unrivalled understanding of potential drug targets in the development procedures of new medicines.

A) There is an increasing recognition from scientists that they need to work closely with companies that provide complementary expertise
B) The reason for the failure of alternative drugs in the market is their limited efficacy for their targets rather than purely safety
C) It is sometimes ignored by authorities that brilliant experts need to be chosen earlier in the development process by the companies
D) Academic institutions are falling short of engaging with leading drug companies at an earlier stage of a pharmaceutical companies
E) Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly turning to collaboration with the academicians at the top ranking universities

12. Particularly important to the marketer is knowledge of the philosophies of major political parties within a country ----.

A) since any of them, when in power, might change the consumption patterns of the public
B) as the historical direction each minor party is likely to take is unpredictable
C) no matter how one tends to be more restrictive regarding foreign trade than the others
D) so that one party sometimes changes its membership criteria
E) although the doctrines of opposing parties have an influence on the direction of the policy

13. Thanks to vaccinations, antibiotics, sanitation and better parental care, ----.

A) age is the biggest risk factor for common deadly illnesses
B) an infant born today is not luckier than their grandparents
C) today, we are much more likely to die in old age than in our youth
D) it would not be reasonable to have high expectations to live longer and healthier
E) a high childhood death rate is still a fact in most of the African states

14. ----, they are often exposed to indoor pollution.

A) Because people can be affected to a great extent by a city’s infrastructure
B) Though the majority of factories use fuel especially for the production process
C) If facilities for health care are a concern in all countries across the world
D) When cars are used more frequently than public transportation
E) Since poor households are more dependent on solid fuel for heating and cooking

15. As the population of Asia’s wild tigers has declined over the years, ----.

A) the improved health of Thailand’s forests suggests that the tiger population could continue to grow.
B) it is known that global alarm for the species first sounded in 1969 following a peak in the tiger skin trade
C) they are also regarded as powerful swimmers and can supplement their diets with marine life
D) these legendary animals have become a thing of the fable as much as reality
E) they are not picky about their food and environments like pandas

16. Because social relations are so crucial for human life, ----.

A) young adults often devote long hours to work, leaving little time for other activities
B) relationships that cut across both racial and ethnic lines are nothing new
C) it is not surprising that loneliness and personal rejection are major sources of distress
D) loneliness can take many forms and cannot be detected simply by looking at someone
E) it is possible to experience one type of loneliness but not the others

17. New Zealand consists of two main islands and a number of smaller, outlying islands, which are so scattered ----.

A) while the country has been in the forefront in instituting social welfare legislation
B) as other inhabited islands include the Chatham Islands and Great Barrier Island
C) even if the North Island and the South Island are separated by the Cook Strait
D) since the Maoris, who consisted of several tribes, were the first inhabitants of the country
E) that they range from the tropical to the antarctic


Soru kökünde indirgeme ya da kısaltma ifadeleri verilebilir. İndirgeme ya da kısaltma ilk tarafta ise, ikinci cümlenin öznesinin aslında her iki cümlenin öznesi olduğu unutulmamalıdır. Amaç bildiren yapılarda ise işi yapan bir insan mı yoksa insan dışı bir varlık mı belirlendikten sonra cevaplara o beklentiyle yaklaşılmalıdır.

18. To cope with the increasing number of tourists visiting Saudi Arabia ----.

A) investment in tourism sector is not among the top priorities of the government
B) hotel managers say that the average stay for a tourist is between two and seven days
C) the government has outlined a plan to invest more money in its airports and transportation
D) officials have been concerned about the potential oversupply of hotels in the country
E) the country’s four main international airports handle most of the domestic air travel

19. ---- so as to maximise the amount of accurate information in hand.

A) The police often have the option of closing an investigation file
B) It is highly crucial for the police to interview eyewitnesses
C) It would be easy to identify someone with the help of closed-circuit television
D) One must realise how important it is to avoid identifying an innocent person as the criminal
E) The cognitive interview has proved itself to be more effective than other interview techniques

20. In order to analyze the light reflected from Earth, ----.

A) a team of astronomers used a very large telescope in Chile
B) some of the light reaches the Moon and is again reflected, known as 'Earthshine'
C) it may be a while before astronomers are able to do that
D) a number of new planets have been discovered so far with the help of new space telescopes
E) the light reflected from these distant worlds is too faint to be analyzed by today's telescopes

21. In order to get plenty of calcium for healthy bones, ----.

A) women are much more prone than men to thinning of the bones
B) spinach is well-known for its healthgiving properties
C) calcium is very essential for living organisms, especially for normal growth
D) at the age of 30, bone density gradually declines year after year
E) one should consume such foods as dairy products, greens and oily fish

22. In trying to understand the development of language, ----.

A) the grammar of a language represents the linguistic knowledge or capacity of its speakers
B) human language utilizes a fairly small number of sounds
C) language is a part of our essential human nature and was never invented
D) our curiosity about ourselves has also led to numerous theories about language origin
E) scholars, for ages, have been debating the role played by the vocal tract and the ear

23. In order to make the first vessels to cross stretches of water, ----.
A) ancient civilizations depend heavily on these for their survival and expansion
B) the Greeks brought the art of rowing to a level of perfection that has never been surpassed
C) early attempts were often unique to the societies that originated them
D) people had already developed them for such purposes as fishing and transporting goods
E) early humans employed materials ranging from animal skins to small pieces of timber

Cevap Anahtarı:

1-A     2-B     3-B     4-A    5-E      6-A   7-D   8-D   9-C   10-A 
11-E   12-A   13-C   14-E   15-D   16-C  17-E
18-C   19-B   20-A   21-E   22-E   23-E

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