Paragrafta eksik cümleyi tamamlama çözüm ve yaklaşım - 3

Paragrafta eksik cümleyi tamamlama çözüm ve yaklaşım - 3

13. Gregor Mendel was not the first plant breeder. At the time he began his work, hybrid plants and animals had been known for a long time. Mendel’s genius lay in his ability to recognize a pattern in the way the parental traits reappear in the offspring of hybrids. —-

A) It is true that Mendel was a clergyman who bred pea plants in his monastery garden at Brno, Czech Republic.
B) Therefore, at that time biology was largely a descriptive science, and biologists had little interest in experimental studies.
C) So it is clear that Mendel’s “hereditary factors” are essentially what we call “genes” today, which is one of the major subjects of modern biology.
D) In fact, geneticists study not only the transmission of genes, but also the expression of genetic information.
E) No one before him had categorized and counted the offspring and analyzed these regular patterns over several generations.

Bu paragrafın konusu Mendel. Ahmet-He tekniğine göre seçeneklerde He arayalım. E seçeneğinde onun yerini tutabilecek “him” var. Bu şıktaki “these regular patterns” ifadeisndeki “pattern” sözcüğü, gizli cümleden önceki cümlede de bulunuyor. O zaman bu şık doğru olmaktadır. Cevap: E

14. From about 1300 until about the middle of the fifteenth century, disasters struck throughout western Europe with appalling severity and dismaying persistence. —- Then came the most terrible natural disaster of all: the dreadful plague known as “the Black Death.” It reduced the total population of western Europe by at least one half and caused great hardships for most of the survivors.

A) Europe emerged in the later fifteenth century with a healthier economy.
B) Of these disasters, famine was the most widespread and persistent.
C) There was a limit to the amount of land that could be cleared for farming.
D) Overcrowding made Europe’s cities particularly vulnerable to the plague.
E) Large-scale banking had already emerged during the thirteenth century.

Bu soruda da “these” sözcüğünden yardım alıyoruz. B seçeneğindeki “these” den sonraki “disasters” sözcüğünü, gizli cümleden önce arıyo-ruz. Bu sözcük 2. satırda var. Doğru şık o zaman B. Cevap: B

15. In 1915 the German scientist Alfred Wegener, who had noted a similarity between the geographical shapes of South America and Africa, proposed that all the land masses had at one time been joined into one huge supercontinent. He called this supercontinent “Pangea.” —- Wegener did not know of any mechanism that could have caused continental drift. So his idea, although debated initially, was largely ignored.

A) He further suggested that Pangea had subsequently broken apart and that various land masses had separated in a process known as “continental drift.”
B) Earth’s crust is composed of seven large plates, plus a few smaller ones, that float on the mantle which is the solid layer of Earth lying beneath the crust and above the core.
C) As the plates move, the continents change their relative positions, and this movement of the crustal plates is termed “plate tectonics.”
D) When two plates grind together, one of them is sometimes buried under the other in a process known as “subduction.”
E) As the continents began to drift apart, populations became geographically isolated in different environmental conditions and began to diverge along separate evolutionary pathways.

13. soruda Mendel’den söz edilmişti. Ahmet-He’ye göre doğru şıkkı bulmuştuk. Bu soruda da Alman bilim adamı Wegener konu ediliyor. Yine aynı tekniği kullanırsak, doğru şıkkın A olması gerek. Buradaki bilgi de paragrafın son cümlesi ile anlamsal bütünlük sağlıyor. Cevap: A

16. The economic depression of the 1930s forced many writers to re-examine the style and purpose of their work. Among threats of economic devastation, totalitarianism, and war, literature became increasingly politicized. Authors were largely interested in the depiction of injustice and cruelty and felt obliged to point the way to a better society. —-

A) In his great poem The Waste Land the Anglo- American poet T.S. Eliot presented a philosophy that was close to despair.
B) In his novel The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway gave the public a powerful description of the socalled “lost generation”.
C) Moreover, they no longer directed their work to fellow intellectuals alone, but to ordinary men and women as well.
D) Furthermore, Virginia Woolf’s essays and novels offered an eloquent and severe critique of Britain’s institutions and universities.
E) As for Bertolt Brecht, he rebelled against high culture and bourgeois values, but he also protested against the pretentious elitism of his contem-poraries.

Bu paragrafta 1930’lardaki dünya ekonomik krizinden söz ediliyor. Doğru şık olmaya aday, 3 tane bağlaçla başlayan seçenek var. En üstteki doğru olur, kuralına göre C seçeneğinin paragrafın son cümlesi olup olamayacağına bakalım. Ahmet-He tekniğine göre buradaki “they” öznesinin bir önceki cümlede karşılığı olup olmadığına bakalım. Autors, öznesi aranan sözcüktür. Cevap: C

17. The development of genetic engineering has stemmed from the discovery of DNA in the 1950s. By the 1990s, several laboratories in the West were engaged in the most ambitious medical research ever attempted: the mapping of the human genome, that is, the entire architecture of chromosomes and genes contained in basic human DNA. —- For instance, infertile couples could now conceive through out-of-body medical procedures.

A) As a new form of knowledge in an age of global interconnection, genetic engineering has forced many nations to make changes in their laws and regulations concerning medical practices.
B) In Africa, Latin America, and elsewhere, political chaos, imbalances of trade, and the practices of some pharmaceutical companies have often resulted in shortages of medicine.
C) As AIDS became a global health crisis in the 1980s, international organizations recognized the need for an early, swift, and comprehensive response to future outbreaks of disease.
D) Through this process and alongside it, genetic engineers developed methods to alter the biology of living things, including humans.
E) Moreover, genetically engineered human growth hormone is required by some children to overcome growth deficiencies.

Bu paragrafta DNA’nın nasıl bulunduğu anlatılmaktadır. Doğru cevap olabilecek iki şık var. “This process “sözcüğünün olduğu D ve Moreover bağlacı ile başlayan E. Moreover bağlacı az önce doğru şık olduğu için tekrar kullanılma olasılığı çok zayıftır. Üstteki, daha doğru olur kuralına göre de C şıkkına bir bakalım. Buradaki “process” kelimesinin kendisi yok ama DNA’nın bulunuş süreci anlatılıyor. Cevap: D

Not: Şıkları elerken cümle boşlukla başlamış ise öncelikle however, nonethelss, notwithstanding, gibi geçiş ifade eden cümleleri rahatlıkla eleyebilirsiniz.

18. It has been a basic tenet that an individual who uses substances heavily will become addicted. There are reports, however, of people becoming addicted to a substance with exposure only once or a few times. Some experts believe people are born with the predisposition to become addicted. ---- Thus, the potential for addiction may be hereditary. On the other hand, a psychological problem may lead the individual into addiction. The need for instant gratification, a feeling of being socially ostracized, and an inability to cope with the downfalls of life have all been cited as possible springboards to addiction.
A) One characteristic that marks addiction, whether to chemicals or nonchemical practices, is the genetic modification it leads to.
B) A careful medically-controlled withdrawal program can reverse the chemical changes in genes caused by the addiction.
C) Habitual use of an addictive substance can produce changes in body chemistry and any treatment must be geared to a gradual reduction in dosage.
D) Studies have found that many former addicts have enough determination to avoid drugs for the rest of their lives.
E) Children of addicts have a greater probability of becoming addicts themselves than children whose parents are not.

Bu tür paragraflarda boşluktan önceki ve boşluktan sonraki cümleler bize ipucu verir, ancak bu durumda kelime bilgisi ve yazılanları anlamamız çok önemli. Bu paragrafta boşluktan önceki cümlede "Bazı uzmanlar, insanların bağımlı olma eğilimiyle doğduğuna inanıyor." boşluktan sonraki cümlede de "Bu nedenle, bağımlı olma potansiyeli kalıtsal olabilir." Bu iki cümle arasına gelebilecek ifadenin aile ve çocukla ilgili bir cümle olması gerekir. Bu cümle de "E" şıkkında var.

19. Eating too much fatty food, exercising too little and smoking can raise your future risk of heart disease. ---- Previous studies have linked exposure to environmental pollution to an increased risk of heart problems, but the two analyses now show that poor air quality can lead to a heart attack or stroke within as little as a few hours after exposure. Scientists found that people exposed to high levels of pollutants were up to 5% more likely to suffer a heart attack within days of exposure than those with lower exposure.

A) This can be reduced, however, if you exercise outside in the fresh air.
B) Heart disease is reversible if the underlying disease can be treated.
C) But there is another factor that can trigger heart problems more immediately.
D) The risks are relatively low for people who “smoke socially” and have lower cholesterol levels.
E) Strict regulation of pollutants may not only improve air quality but could also become necessary to protect public health.

Bir paragrafta bazen yazar bir konuyu ortaya atar ancak bu konuyla ilgili bir diğer görüşü de ortaya atıp bir tartışma açar. Bu paragrafımızda da yazar giriş cümlesinde çok fazla yağlı yemek yemenin, çok az egzersiz yapmanın ve sigara içmenin gelecekteki kalp hastalığı riskinizi artırabileceğinden bahsediyor. Boşluktan sonraki cümlede de çevre kirliliğine maruz kalmanın kalp hastalığı riskini artırması ile bağlantılı olduğu çalışmalardan bahsediyor. Yani yazar burada iki konuyu tartışmaya açıyor. İkinci konuya geçiş yapan paragraftaki boşluk daima ikinci cümledir ve daima zıtlık belirten bir geçiş ifadesi kullanılır. "However"  ve "But" kelimeleri zıtlık belirten ifadelerdir. Bu da A ve C şıklarında var. Boşluktan sonraki cümlelerde diğer faktörlerden bahsettiği için tartışmaya giriş yapan cümle "C" şıkkıdır.

In our modern world, celebrities may serve an important social function. In a highly mobile, industrial society, celebrities may be the only friends we have in common with our new neighbours and co-workers. They provide a common interest and topic of conversation between people who otherwise might not have much to say to one another, and they facilitate the types of informal interaction that help people become comfortable in new surroundings. ---- 

A) Teenagers in particular seem to be prone to learning how to dress, manage relationships, and be socially successful by tuning into popular culture.
B) Research published in 2007 reveals that young people even look to celebrities for learning life strategies to help them cope with difficulties.
C) Hence, keeping up with the lives of actors, politicians and athletes can make a person more socially adept during interactions with strangers.
D) On the contrary, the intense familiarity with celebrities provided by the media initiates the same gossip mechanisms for in-group members.
E) Adopting the role of the self-righteous soul who refuses to participate in gossip at work or in other areas of your social life will be self-defeating.

Genellikle yazar paragrafın ana fikrini söyledikten sonra onu destekleyen cümlelerle açıklar, örneklendirir ve son cümlede de onu toparlayarak paragrafını sonlandırır. Bu paragrafımızda da konu ünlülerle ilgili ve insanların ortak ilgisini çeken ünlülerin sohbetin ortak konusu olabileceğini ve yeni bir çevrede etkileşimi kolaylaştırabileceğini ifade ediyor. Bu paragrafı sonlandırabilecek bir cümlenin yine ünlülerle ilgili ve sosyal olarak iletişimle ilgili olması gerek ve sebebini de açıklayacak bir geçiş kelimesinin de kullanılması gerek. O kelime de "Hence" bu yüzden, bundan dolayı ... Doğru şık "C" 

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