Dialog Sorularında Çözüm Yaklaşımları 2-YDS

John : The economic rather than political aspect of European colonialism has always interested me.
Francis I know. It is clear from most of the papers you have presented so far. So you think that colonial exploitation in the past was the major source of Europe’s economic prosperity.
John : ----------------------
Francis : Agreed. Indeed, it is impossible to imagine this prosperity without them.

A) Actually, Britain’s American colonies had no significant mineral wealth and, therefore, they turned to agriculture.
B) Moreover, as far as I am concerned, the Spanish colonial economy was dominated by mining.
C) On the other hand, the Portuguese government allowed only Portuguese merchants to trade with their own colonies.
D) Absolutely. For instance, Europe’s growing wealth in the eighteenth century was simply the result of its colonial possessions.
E) To compete with the British, the French government encouraged the development of sugar-producing colonies in the West Indies.

Bu bölüm sorularında konuşma diline özgü ifadelerle başlayan şıklar, soruda ve şıklarda bulunan yardımcı fiiller bizi doğru cevaba götüren ipucu olabilmektedir. Ancak bu soruda actually, moreover, on the other hand, absolutely, gibi bol miktarda konuşma diline özgü ifade var. Sorunun son satırındaki “this prosperity” ifadesine bakarak seçeneklerde “prosperity” sözcüğü arayabiliriz. D seçeneğinde bunun eş anlamlısı olan “wealth” var. Burada Avrupanın 18.yy’daki zenginliğinin sömürge-lerindeki mallarından kaynaklanması örnek olarak gösteriliyor. Cevap: D

Mary : Recently I have been reading Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s political treatise The Social
Contract, published in 1762. In his political views, he was certainly more radical than most of his contemporaries.
Susan : Yes, he was, indeed. For instance, he was probably the first person in his time to talk about popular sovereignty and democracy.
Mary : ----------------------
Susan : Because of his radical views as such, he caused a great deal of controversy in eigh-teenth-century France.

A) His famous novel Emile tells the story of how a young man learns virtue and freedom.
B) I didn’t know that he was better known for his writing on education and moral virtue.
C) We know that Enlightenment thinkers considered education key to human progress.
D) The Social Contract was the least understood of his works, wasn’t it?
E) Obviously, he believed that legitimate authority arose from the people alone.

Boşluğa ilk koyulacak şık olmaya aday bir şık var, burada. Bir önceki sorunun aksine burada konuşma diline özgü ifade tek şıkta, yani E’de var. Buradaki “he” öznesi de Ahmet-he’ye göre bunun doğru şık olduğunu gösteriyor. Cevap: E

Robert : Did you know that the first recorded Olympic Games took place in the Valley of Olympia in Greece in 776 B.C.?
Ted : No, I didn’t. But I know that in antiquity they were held at four-year intervals.
Robert : ----------------------
Ted : Then, boxing, wrestling, and many other sports must have been added over time.

A) I wonder to what extent the modern Olympic Games were driven by economics and politics.
B) Do you think the goals of modern olympism as stated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) are still valid?
C) The ancient Greeks believed that human life was completely controlled by the gods.
D) True. Unfortunately, they were abolished by the Roman emperor Theodosius I in 394 A.D.. Interestingly, the first Olympics contained only one event: the foot race.
E) As you know, many cities in the world compete with each other for the honour and prestige of hosting the Olympic Games.

Bu soruda çok net bir ip ucu var; Tarih sıralaması. Sorudaki M.Ö 776, tarihi ile D seçeneğindeki M.S.394 tarihi arasında bağ kurarız. Buradaki “True” ifadesi de konuşma diline özgü ifade olarak bize yardımcı olmaktadır. Cevap: D

Jack : In the British empire, India was the first colony to win its independence soon after World War II, wasn’t it?
Robin : Yes, it was. Actually, the extraordinary Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi had been at work in India since the 1920s and had pioneered anticolonial ideas.
Jack : ----------------------
Robin : Principally, his strategy was nonviolent noncooperation. So he urged the Indian people to withdraw from the imperial economy and develop their own means of resistance such as going on strike, refusing to pay taxes, or boycotting British goods.

A) In the face of colonial domination, how did he set about the anticolonial movement for the independence of India?
B) Gandhi’s strategy for independence provided a model for many liberation struggles in other colonies.
C) Hadn’t he already led a nonviolent campaign for the political rights of the Indian community in South Africa between 1894 and 1914?
D) By 1947 Gandhi had gained such widespread support that the British found it impossible to continue in power in India.
E) Yet, in June 1947, British India was partitioned into the nations of India and Pakistan, and the process of partition brought brutal religious and ethnic warfare.

Robin’in son ifadesi uzun bir açıklama. Bu tür açıklamalar genellikle “well” ile başlar. “Principally” de bu şekilde kullanılır. Böyle bir cümleden önce de açıklama isteyen bir soru olur. Seçeneklerde soru A ve C’de var. Üstteki şık daha doğrudur, kuralına göre A şıkkını okuyalım. Buradaki “how” sorusu da “well” cevabı gerektiren bir soru kelimesi içeriyor. Cevap: A

Stephen : By the way, what does the term “hydrologic cycle” mean? Can you explain it?
Martin : Basicaly it means that water cycles from the oceans and land to the atmosphere, and then back to the oceans, and land. It is a complex cycle, which provides us with a renewable supply of purified water on land.
Stephen : ----------------------
Martin : Certainly, and also an important one. As you might expect, forests release substantial amounts of moisture into the atmosphere by transpiration, which then falls as precipitation.

A) When a forest is burned or cut down, how is the climate of the region affected?
B) Do you think forests influence an area’s climate?
C) Do forests play a role in this cycle?
D) How does transpiration by trees influence the local temperature of forests?
E) What are the factors that determine climate?

Bir önceki soruda açıkladığımız gibi, açıklama isteyen bir sorudan sonra well, principally gibi sözcüklerle başlayan bir açıklama gelebilmektedir. Buradaki diyolog ta aynı şekilde başlıyor. Yalnızca bu kez well yerine “basically” sözcüğü kullanılmış. Soruda, gizli cümleden sonra, “certainly” ifadesi kullanılmış. Bu evet anlamındadır, yani bir şeyi onaylamak için kullanılır. Bu durumda bundan önce yardımcı fiille sorulmuş bir soru olmalı sonucuna varıyoruz. Bu B ve C seçeneklerinde var. C’deki “this cycle” ifadesine göre gizli cümleden önce “cycle” sözcüğü olmalıdır. Martin’in ilk ifadesinde böyle bir cycle’dan söz ediliyor. This/These/Such (isim) kalıbı bize yalnız paragrafta eksik cümleyi bulma sorularında değil, diğer bölümlerde de bir çeşit Ahmet-He ilişkisi içinde doğru şıkkı bulmamıza yardımcı olur. Cevap: C.

Harry : It is true that, in the nineteenth century, Britain and France were Europe’s two great overseas empires.
Charles : Why do you think so? Besides them, there were other colonial powers in Europe that also owned territories overseas.
Harry : ----------------------
Charles : I see what you mean. In other words, the Germans were reluctant to engage in a colonial enterprise. Right?

A) The new political and economic relationships between colonies and dependent states on the one hand and the colonizing power on the other ran both ways, bringing changes to both sides.
B) The convergence of technology, money, and politics involved in the construction of the Suez Canal represents the interplay of economics and empire in late nineteenth-century Europe.
C) The years from 1870 to 1914 brought both rapid industrialization throughout the West and the stunningly rapid expansion of Western power abroad.
D) In terms of colonial power politics, they counted little. As for Germany, which was the strongest emerging power inside Europe, its governments did not believe that colonization overseas would yield economic and political advantages. So, Germany was not a colonial empire.
E) The nineteenth-century empires developed against the backdrop of economic and political changes such as industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the rise of nation-states, which transformed Europe and European imperialism.

Charles’ın son ifadesinde, “Diğer bir deyişle Almanların sömürgeciliğe ilgi göstermediler, öyle değil mi”, deniyor. Diğer bir deyişle, dediğine göre bir önceki cümlede söylenen şeye burada açıklık getiriliyor. Bu yüzden gizli cümlede de Almanlardan söz edilmeli. Seçeneklerde “Germans” sözcüğü ararsak bunu yalnızca en uzun şık olan D’de görüyoruz. Cevap: D

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