Passive: The use of 'BY'

The use of Agent (By) in Passive Voice

Edilgen bir cümlede bazen eylemin kim yada ne tarafından yapıldığı da ifade edilebilir. Bu durumda eylemi yapan kişi veya nesne "by" ile eylem yapmak için kullanılan araç ise "with, in, on..." gibi uygun edatlarla (preposition) ifade edilir. Eğer eylem kendiliğinden oluşmuş ise bu durumda "by+ phrase" kullanılır.

· The man was killed with a knife
· The letter which will be sent to mayor is written in ink.
· The souce was made with mashroom, garlic and onion.
· Janny was hit on the head with a hard substance and was carried to a car by two men.
· The wood was chopped with an axe by them.
· The window was broken with a piece of wood.

Ancak, bir eylemin kimin tarafından yapıldığı bir çok sebepten dolayı ifade edilmeyebilir.

1- Eylemi yapan kişinin kim olduğu veya ne olduğu bilinmiyorsa;

· The fence between the houses has been removed to make passages.
· Jam is made from fruit.

2- yapan kişinin kim olduğunun önemli olmadığı bir durumda;

· These packets should be carefully placed in the box.
· The ingredent should be carefully measured in order to get a better result.

3- Yapan kişinin veya neyin yaptığı açık veya belli olan bir durumda;

· The man was sentenced for two years for embezzling Money.
· Two men were seen running out of the bank yesterday morning.

4- Yapan kişiden daha önceden bahsedilmişse;

· The government responded quickly, and new measurments were taken carefully.

5- Genel anlamde insanlar eylemi etkiliyorsa;

· He was elected as president in 2002
· Books can be obtained from the public library.
· I think that everyone will be relieved when this crisis is over.

6- yapan kişinin kim olduğunu gizlemek istiyorsak yada ilgi kurmak istemiyorsak:

· The government was forced to say that the report would be implemented.
· Terry had been given instructions to moderate his tone during the speech.

Eylemi yapan kişinin (agent) kim olduğu vurgulanmak isteniliyorsa yapan kişi kullanılabilir.

· The workers were provided with free coffee and tea (by the company.)
· Turkish Republic was found by Atatürk.

Ancak bazen vurgulanmaktan ziyade, gerekli olan durumlarda, yapan kişinin önemli olduğu durumlarda yapan kişi (agent) kullanılır.

· President was met at the airport by the queen.
· Her wedding dress will be made by a famious designer in Paris.

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